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AES标准中文导读资料

 

 

AES2-2012

AES2-1984修订版

  

AES声学标准—专业级扬声器性能测量及

 

判定方法—驱动单元

 

 

 

(内容摘要)

 

Abstract

Thisdocument is a recommended practice for describing and specifying loudspeakercomponents used in professional audio and sound-reinforcement systems. Thesecomponents include high-frequency drivers and low-frequency drivers.Specifications are given for describing frequency response, impedance,distortion, and power handling.

 

    本文件是一份操作规程建议,适用于描述和指定在专业音频和扩声系统中使用的扬声器元件。

这些元件包括高频扬声器驱动单元和低频扬声器驱动单元。对于扬声器单元,会给出用以描述频率响应、阻抗、失真度和额定功率的相应规格。

      AES 标准的作用是为制造商、消费者和大众提供一个书面的直接指导和参考。其内容涵盖了生产制造、市场营销、购买、产品使用、处理步骤等等。无论生产者或使用者是否认可,AES 标准都会尊重每个人。需要首先声明的是,所有当事方都有权对AES 标准进行评论或反对其中的条款。需要注意,AES 标准中的某些信息或文件可能已经申请了专利。但AES 并没有专利认证的义务。AES 许可并不向任何专利所有方承担责任,同样也没有向采用AES 标准文件的当事方承担责任的义务。本标准每隔一段时间会进行修订,用户需要及时获取最新的版本。我们欢迎阅读者提供相关的专利信息来完善标准的修订。我们也鼓励采用阅读者对相关的专利权益提出自己的建议和意见为文档提供支持。

 

 

目 录

 

使用范围

参考规范

定义

测量条件

测量的要点、测量的方法及结果的发布

功率

附录参考文献

附录峰值因子

 

Thisforeword is not part of the AES2-2012 AESstandard for acoustics - Methods of measuring and specifying the performance ofloudspeakers for professional applications - Drive units

 

前言不属于本标准《AES声学标准—专业级扬声器性能测量及判定方法—驱动单元》的一部分

 

1984年版前言

 

这份文件意在为音乐、语言和固定信号(如警报)系统中使用的扬声器推荐一种性能参考的方法。我们需要这份标准,以便于可以通过使用一些与实际特定用途直接相关的方法,让这些元件可以在一个同等的基础上进行比较。在此之前,还没有类似的关于这一类音响产品的惯例或标准存在。在这份文件中用到的测试和术语与IEC 268-5(1972)标准出版物和268-5A(1980)附录相兼容。

在此介绍的文件纯粹是一份建议。

此委员会是由John Eargle197511月提出和组建的,以下的委员对此标准建议的处理和通过做出贡献:

 

Clifford Henricksen, 主席

J.Robert Ashely, George Augspurger, George Brettell, Bob Davis, Howard Durbin,David Klepper, Bart Locanthi, Manny Mohageri, Harold Mosier, Richard Negus,Daniel Queen, Ludwig Sepmeyer, and Melvin Sprinkle.

 

2012年版前言

 

This document substantially revises and updates AES2-1984.

 

本文件基本上是对AES2-1984的修订和更新。

 

参与起草的工作组成员有:D. Blore , J. Brusi, M. Buck, R. Campbell, D. Carlstrom, D. Cinanni, P.Conejos, E. Geddes, D. Gunness, C. Hughes, R. Hagenbach, S. Hutt, D.Keele, W.Klippel, H. van Maanen, B.C. Olson, S. Orth, R. Sauro, E. Simon, R. Small, J.S.Stewart, J.Stratman, C.J. Struck, A. Voishvillo, J. Woodgate

Steve Hutt

扬声器建模和测量工作组SC-04-03,主席

 

语言使用规范

 

AES 标准的文件中,含有的语句,表示是符合文件要求的,含有的语句表示一种强烈的建议。表示允许时,语句中会出现可以一词。表达一种可能性情况时,会使用可能一词。

 

 

AES2-2012 标准名称:

 

 

 

AES声学标准-专业级扬声器性能测量及

 

判定方法-驱动单元

 

1 Scope

使用范围

Thisdocument defines a minimum set of characteristics of loudspeaker drivers forinclusion in manufacturers' specification documents, and identifies therelevant methods of measurement.

 

本文件为制造商规范文件中的扬声器驱动单元定义了最低参数标准并提供了相应的测量方式。

 

Thedocument considers drivers and passive loudspeaker systems for professionalapplications. It does not consider sub-components such as spiders or cones. Itis intended for loudspeaker system designers, and drive unit manufacturers.

 

本文件应用范围为专业应用领域的扬声器驱动单元及无源扬声器系统。不包含诸如支架及音锥等子部件。目的是为扬声器系统制造商和驱动单元制造商提供参考。

 

2 Normativereferences

参考规范

 

Thefollowing referenced documents are indispensable for the application of thisdocument. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undatedreferences, the latest edition of the referenced document (including anyamendments) applies.

 

一下参考文献对于本文件的应用是不可或缺的。对于有署名日期的标准,我们采用对应的唯一版本,对于没有署名日期的标准,我们采用其最新版(包括任何修改条款)。

 

IEC 60268-1:《声音系统设备》,第一部分:总则。国际电工委员会。瑞士,日内瓦。

IEC60268-2:《声音系统设备》,第二部分:对于主要部分及计算方法的解释。国际电工委员会。瑞士,日内瓦。

IEC60268-5 Ed.3.1 2007:《声音系统设备》,第五部分:扬声器。国际电工委员会。瑞士,日内瓦。

IEC 61260:《电声学—倍频程和分数倍频程滤波器》。国际电工委员会。瑞士,日内瓦

ISO3741:《声学—在混响房间内使用精确声压方法定义噪声源声功率级》。国际标准化组织。瑞士,日内瓦。

 

3 Definitions

3. 定义

3.1

loudspeaker 扬声器

一种电声换能系统,为距离换能器件一定距离范围内提供声音重放。

3.2

drive unit, driver 驱动单元

基本的电声学换能器件,在商业中可作为一个整体对待,与诸如隔板、外壳和号角等其他部分组合使用形成一只扬声器或扬声器系统。

3.3

broadband noise signal 宽带噪声

IEC 60268-2

3.4

narrow-band noise signal 窄带噪声

IEC 60268-2

3.5

impulsive signal 冲激信号

Ashort duration pulse having constant spectral power per unit bandwidth over at leastthe bandwidth of interest of the measurement.

持续时间极短的脉冲信号,至少在感兴趣的测量带宽范围内在每个单位带宽内具有恒定的频谱功率。

3.6

simulated program signal 模拟节目信号

IEC 60268-1

3.7

free-field conditions 自由场条件

IEC 60268-5

3.8

half-space free-field conditions 半空间自由场条件

IEC 60268-5

3.9

simulated free-field conditions 模拟自由场条件

Conditionswhich are equivalent to those of free space for the time required to carry outa measurement.

符合测量混响时间要求的,等同于自由场的环境条件。

NOTE These conditions, which may apply in free space or half space, areused for gated or

impulsemeasurements.

注意:此类半空间或全空间的环境用于选通或脉冲测量。

3.10

diffuse sound field conditions 扩散场条件

ISO 3741

3.11

power compression 功率压缩

Reductionin sensitivity of a loudspeaker with increasing input voltage or power.

在增加电压或功率输入时扬声器灵敏度的衰减量。

3.12

Thiele-Small parameters ofa transducer 换能器件的Thiele-Small参数

parameter 参数                       symbol 符号表示

d.c.resistance of the voice coil 

音圈的直流电电阻                            RE

effectivepiston area of the radiating element

辐射单元的活塞有效面积                 SD

resonancefrequency of the mass and compliance of 

the radiating element                 fS

辐射元件的共振频率

mechanicalQ of the resonance at fS  

在共振频率fS处的机械品质因数                 QMS

electricalQ of the resonance at fS  

在共振频率fS处的电气子品质因数                 QES

equivalentair volume of the compliance of 

the radiating element                      VAS

辐射单元的等效空气体积

maximumuseful displacement of the voice-coil or 

equivalent element in either directionfrom its rest position 

音圈最大的有效位移或距其平衡位置的等效偏移量                       XMAX

3.13

directivity index 指向性指数 Di

IEC 60268-5, 23.3有说明

3.14

crest factor 峰值因子

theratio of the peak amplitude to the time-averaged rms amplitude of analternating waveform

一个交流波形的峰值幅度值与按时间平均的幅度有效值之比。

3.15 Principle of thetransducer 换能器件工作原理

3.15.1

electrodynamic (moving-coil) loudspeaker 电动式(动圈式)扬声器

loudspeaker,the diaphragm of which is driven by a mechanical force that occurs when currentflows through an electric conductor placed in a magnetic field

电流流过放置在磁场中的电导体产生驱动力带动振膜振动的扬声器。

3.15.2

electrostatic (condenser) loudspeaker 静电式(电容式)扬声器

loudspeaker,the diaphragm of which is driven by an electrostatic force

由静电力带动振膜振动的扬声器。

3.15.3

piezoelectric (crystal) loudspeaker 压电式(晶体)扬声器

loudspeaker,the diaphragm of which is driven by a force of piezoelectric effect

由压电效应带动振膜振动的扬声器。

3.15.4

electromagnetic (moving-iron) loudspeaker 电磁式(动铁式)扬声器

loudspeaker,the diaphragm of which is driven by a magnetic force applied to a movable partof a ferromagnetic substance

由铁磁性物质的可动部分产生的磁力驱动振膜振动的扬声器。

3.16 Type 类型

3.16.1

direct radiator loudspeaker 直接辐射扬声器

loudspeakerthat directly radiates an acoustic sound from the diaphragm

将声能从振膜直接辐射出去的扬声器

3.16.2

horn loudspeaker 号角扬声器

loudspeakerto which an end of a horn, the cross-sectional area of which changes continuously,is attached at the front of the diaphragm, so that the other end of the hornradiates an acoustic sound

带有号角的扬声器,号角的横截面积变化改变了声音一致性,一端与扬声器振膜接触,从另一端向外辐射声能。

3.16.3

compression driver 压缩单元

loudspeakerdrive unit, of which the opening area to be connected to the horn is madesmaller than the diaphragmarea

扬声器的驱动单元,与号角连接的开放区域小于振膜区域。

4 Conditions for measurements

4. 测量条件

4.1 Rated conditions

4.1 标称条件

Foreffective and realistic testing, certain data which the manufacturer providesserves to establish a basis for measurements. These data are:

为了测试的真实有效,制造商需要提供一些数据作为测量的基础,这些数据为:

•rated impedance 标称阻抗

•rated sinusoidal voltage or power 标称正弦电压或功率

•rated noise voltage or power 标称噪声电压或功率

•rated frequency range 标称频率范围

•reference plane 参考平面

•reference point 参考点

•reference axis 参考轴

Afull explanation of the term 'rated' is given in IEC 60268-2.

对于“标称”的确切定义请参见IEC 60268-2

4.2 Normal measuringconditions

一般测量条件

Toestablish normal measuring conditions, all of the following conditions shall befulfilled:

符合标准的一般测量条件需要满足一下几条:

a)the loudspeaker is mounted as specified in 4.7; 扬声器按照4.7节中的方式安装;

b)the acoustic environment is as specified by the manufacturer; 采用制造商指定的声学环境;

c)the distance of the microphone from the loudspeaker is as specified in 4.5; 测试传声器与扬声器之间的距离符合4.5节的要求。

d)the loudspeaker is supplied with a specified test signal (see 4.3), at therelevant voltage

specifiedin this standard; 按照本标准的要求为扬声器馈送相应电压的测试信号(见4.3节);

e)The interconnections between the amplifier and loudspeaker shall have a maximum

impedanceless than 5% of the loudspeaker's rated impedance. 扬声器与功放之间连接的阻抗最高不超过扬声器本身标称阻抗的5%

f)all controls are set to the positions specified by the manufacturer 所有控制功能均按照制造商的要求设置;

g)relevant measuring equipment is in place. 相关测试设备就位。

4.3 Requirements for testsignals 测试信号要求

4.3.1 Sinusoidal signal 正弦信号

Asinusoidal signal shall have a total harmonic distortion of less than 0,1% (-60dB) if it is used for measuring distortion. In addition, no relative harmoniccomponent in the loudspeaker input voltage shall be greater than one tenth ofthat measured in the sound pressure output of the loudspeaker.

Unlessotherwise stated, the voltage across the terminals of the loudspeaker shall bekept constant during a measurement.

如果被用于测量失真,正弦信号的总谐波失真应小于0.1% (-60dB)。此外,在扬声器输入电压端,不允许有任何大于扬声器输出端所测声压级十分之一的相关谐波分量。除非特别说明,在测量全过程中扬声器端口的电压值应是恒定的。

4.3.2 Broadband noisesignal 宽带噪声

Abroadband signal should have a crest factor of between 3 and 4. The voltageshall be measured with a true rms voltmeter having a time-constant sufficientlylong and a bandwidth sufficiently wide to enable the voltage to be measuredwith the required accuracy.

宽带噪声的峰值因子应为3-4之间。应使用能测量真实有效值的电压表来测量电压,该电压表还应具有足够长的时间常数和足够宽的带宽,确保电压测量的精确性。

4.3.3 Narrow-band noisesignal 窄带噪声

Anarrow-band signal should be derived by applying pink noise to an appropriateband-pass filter. Unless otherwise specified, 1/3-octave filters conforming toIEC 61260 shall be used.

窄带噪声应是采用适合的带通滤波器处理粉红噪声后派生出的信号。除非特别说明,应使用IEC 61260标准中确认的1/3倍频程滤波器。

4.4 Unwanted acoustical andelectrical noises 不利的声学和电气噪声

Thelevels of noise shall be sufficiently low that the accuracy of measurement ofthe smallest wanted signals is adequately preserved. Normally, it is sufficientthat the noise measured with a wanted signal is at least 10 dB lower in levelthan the signal.

这些噪声电平需要足够低,使要测量的最小声压级的信号能够充分的保留下来。正常情况下,这些不希望出现的噪声电平值应至少低于最小信号10dB

4.5 Distance of the measuringmicrophone from the loudspeaker 测试传声器与扬声器的距离

4.5.1 Free-field andhalf-space measurements 自由场和半空间自由场测量

Forfree-field and half-space measurements, the distance shall, unless otherwisestated, be sufficient to ensure that measurements are made in the far field ofthe loudspeaker.

在自由场和半空间自由场测量中,除非特别说明,测量距离应保证测试传声器位于扬声器辐射范围的远场中。

NOTE1 For large loudspeakers, this may be very difficult to achieve, but there isat present no practical way of using near-field results to reliably derivefar-field results, except at low frequencies.

注意1:测量大型扬声器时,可能很难保证这一点,但除了低频部分,目前没有一种实用的方法使用近场测试的结果可靠地推导出远场测量的结果。

NOTE2 This does not prohibit the use of other, fully described methods ofmeasurement,

wherethe microphone is not in the far field, which can be shown to produce the sameor more

accurateresults.

注意2:这种方式并不禁止实验人员使用其他完整描述的测量方法在测试传声器不在远场中时获得与远场测量相同或更为接近的结果。

4.5.2 Diffuse-fieldmeasurements 扩散场测量

Fordiffuse-field measurements, the measurement method shall be stated.

在扩散场测量中,测量方法应被声明。

4.6 Measuring equipment 测量设备

Formeasurements other than in a diffuse field, a microphone having a knownfree-field calibration shall be used.

在非扩散场中测量时,应使用具有自由场调校功能的传声器。

4.7 Mounting 安装

Detailsof the mounting of the drive unit shall be recorded with the results of themeasurements. The drive unit should be mounted in one of the following ways:

扬声器驱动单元安装和摆位的详细信息应与测量结果一并记录下来。扬声器驱动单元的安装和摆位应遵循以下几种方式:

  1. a)      on the standard baffle specified in IEC 60268-5; 安装在IEC 60268-5标准指定的隔板上;

  2. b)  on a similar baffle, modified to minimizediffraction at the front surface when the loudspeaker is mounted;安装在类似的隔板上,扬声器安装后能够最大限度的消除前表面的声衍射;

c)  in a plane-wave tube or duct, on a bafflesimilar to, but much smaller than, type a) or b); 安装在平面波管或导管中,比a)b)说明的小很多的隔板或相似的材料上;

d)  in one of the standard enclosures specified inIEC 60268-5; 安装在IEC 60268-5标准指定的一种外壳内。

e)  suspended in free air 悬挂安装

f)  on a large round baffle of at least 2,44 m indiameter 安装在直径至少为2.44m的圆形隔板上

NOTEa), b) or f) is appropriate for loudspeakers intended by the manufacturer toradiate into half-space.

注意:a)b)f)适合于测量制造商专门设计的半空间辐射扬声器。

5 Characteristics to bespecified, methods of measurements and presentation

of results.

5. 测量的要点、测量的方法以及结果的发布

5.1 Characteristics andmethods of measurement 测量的要点和方法

5.1.1 General 概述

Methodsof measurement for various drive-unit characteristics shall be as set out intable 1. The entries in table 1 refer to clauses within IEC 60268-5, exceptwhere indicated otherwise.

针对不同驱动单元的测量要点应该在表1中列出。除特别注明,表1中的条目参照IEC 60268-5标准设置。

5.1.2 Impedance curves 阻抗曲线

Curvesof impedance against frequency should be plotted with a logarithmic impedanceaxis. The test signal should be within the linear range of the device. Theunits shall be listed as ohms. The minimum impedance, and the rated impedance,shall be indicated on the graph. Complex impedance vs frequency should beplotted.

阻抗和频率的关系曲线应当以阻抗对数坐标轴的方式给出。测试信号应该位于设备的线性响应区间。阻抗单位为欧姆。最小阻抗和标称阻抗应在图中特别标明。应绘制复阻抗与频率的关系图。

5.1.3 Acoustic power 声功率

Whenreporting acoustic power, the field condition - free-field, half-space or diffuse- shall be stated.

描述声功率时,需要声明自由场、半空间自由场或扩散场等环境条件。

5.1.4 Frequency response 频率响应

Thefrequency response shall be measured at a stated voltage.

频率响应应以声明的电压单位进行测量。

5.1.5 Harmonic distortion 谐波失真

5.1.5.1 Measurement signal 测试信号

HarmonicDistortion should be measured with either a sine sweep or a stepped sine withadequate frequency resolution (1/24 octave suggested) over the rated frequencyrange. The voltage input should be set to that which produces 10 % of the fullrated power into the rated impedance. Second and third harmonics shall bemeasured.

谐波失真应使用正弦扫频信号或在标称频率范围内具有足够频率分辨率(建议使用1/24倍频程为步长)的步进正弦信号进行测量。输入电压应设置为为标称阻抗的负载提供全标称功率的10%的大小。应当记录二次和三次谐波。

5.1.5.2 Measurement report 测量报告

Distortionmeasurements shall present values of both second- and third-harmonic componentscompared with the fundamental frequency. The levels of distortion shall beexpressed in decibels referenced to the level of the fundamental.

应当在失真测量中反映出二次谐波和三次谐波分量与基频分量的比值。以基频分量为参照,失真程度以分贝为单位记录。

 (未完)

 

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